Thursday, May 17, 2018


SWEETENERS IN PASTRY AND CONFECTIONERY


INTRODUCTION

A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating.Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in food or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity.


DISCUSSION
Sweeteners :-
 Is a substance used to sweeten food or drink, especially one other than sugar.
Types of sweeteners
   NATURAL                               
  ARTIFICIAL

UsED in Cooking and Baking

Natural sweeteners   
Sweetness
Color
Tenderness
Moistness
Volume


Artificial Sweeteners
Sweetness


NATURAL SWEETENERS

Produced by nature, without added chemicals or fancy machinery. The only sugars that are optimal to eat are wild, non-hybridized , seeded fruits, and the natural sugars and starches in living vegetables, trees, seeds, nuts, and roots.
      The following are considered natural sweeteners: maple syrup, honey , and molasses.
 HONEY :- Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or other insects through regurgitation .enzymatic activity, and water evaporation. Honey is stored in wax structures called hoeycombs.


      Uses :-1. Enhances browning and crisp
                 2. Is a flavor enhancer
                 3 . Provides texture and feel
                 4. Retains moisture
                 5. Binding due to its viscosity 
                 6. Adds colour

      Maple syrup  :- Is a syrup usually made from the xylem sapof sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter; the starch is then converted to sugar that rises in the sap in late winter and early spring. Maple trees are tapped by drilling holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap, which is processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated syrup.
      Adds sweetness to the product
      Adds some darkness to the product
      Substitute for white and brown sugar   
      Substitute for honey or Agave syrup


Artificial Sweeteners  
      which are also called sugar substitutes, alternative sweeteners, or nonsugar sweeteners, are substances used to replace sugar in foods and beverages.
      The most common are:
Aspartame, Sucralose, Saccharin, Neotame, Acesulfame K Cyclamate.
      It is possible to categorize all sweeteners into 6 groups:


      GROUPS :-
      1. Sugars
2. Sugar Alcohols
3. Natural Caloric Sweeteners
4. Natural Zero Calorie Sweeteners
5. Modified Sugars
6. Artificial Sweeteners


      1. Sugars :- These are carbohydrates and contain 4 calories per gram. They are found naturally in many foods including fruit, vegetables, cereals and milk. They can be harmful to teeth and tend to have a high glycemic index.
   The most common are:  Sucrose, Glucose, Dextrose,                   Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Galactose and    Trehalose.


Fructose :- Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide. Sucrose


      Maltose :- Also known as maltobiose or malt sugar.


2. Sugar Alcohols :-  These are carbohydrates and occur naturally, though in small amounts, in plants and cereals. They contain fewer calories per gram than sugar and do not cause tooth decay. Because they are carbohydrates, they should have 4 calories per gram. They are harmless to teeth and tend to have a very low glycemic index.
      The most common are :-  Sorbitol, Xylitol, Mannitol, Maltitol,                                                   Erythritol, Isomalt, Lactitol, Glycerol.


      Sorbitol :- Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that is manufactured from the glucose produced from cornstarch. It is often used as a sugar substitute in candies, baked goods, syrups and beverages.

      Isomalt :- Isomalt is the popular name for Isomaltitol which is a sugar substitute made from beet sugar. it have a longer shelf life and structural integrity .helps in create dramatic showpieces and decorative cake.


      3. Natural Caloric Sweeteners :-
These are the oldest known sweeteners and include honey and maple syrup. They contain sugar but also other nutritive qualities. They tend to have a somewhat lower glycemic index than sugar, but still need to be taken in moderation as they can be detrimental to health in large quantities. They can also be harmful to teeth.
            They include:-
                Honey, Maple Syrup, Coconut Palm Sugar and Sorghum       Syrup.




      Coconut Palm Sugar :- Coconut sugar is made from the flowers of the coconut tree. Coconut sugar can be called by two names, coconut sugar or coconut palm sugar , pure and completely natural sugar naturally full of vitamins and minerals.
      Sorghum Syrup :-  Is any of the many varieties of the sorghum grass whose stalks have a high sugar content. Sorghum syrup and hot biscuits are a traditional breakfast. It is also used on pancakes, cornmeal mush, grits and other hot cereals. It can be used as a cooking ingredient with a similar sweetening effect as molasses.


4. Natural Zero Calorie Sweeteners :-
These are not carbohydrates and contain little or no calories. It is only in recent years that interest has grown in these as a better alternative to artificial sweeteners. They have zero glycemic index and are harmless to teeth. Like artificial sweeteners they can have an aftertaste.
     They include:-
                       Luo Han Guo, Stevia, Thaumatin, Pentadin .



      Stevia :- is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana .


      Pentadin:-  a sweet-tasting protein was discovered in the fruit of Oubli (Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillona climbing shrub growing in some tropical countries of Africa.


5. Modified Sugars :-
These are typically sugars produced by converting starch using enzymes. The list also includes sugars that have been modified such as caramel or golden syrup. They tend to have a high glycemic index and can be harmful to teeth. They are often used in cooking or in processed foods.
       A few are:
                         High Fructose Corn Syrup, Refiners                                          Syrup, Caramel ,Inverted Sugar, Golden Syrup.



      Inverted Sugar :-  is a mixture of glucose and fructose , it is obtained by splitting the disaccharide sucrose . its products tend to retain moisture and are less prone to crystallization.


      Golden Syrup :-  is a thick, amber-coloured  form of inverted sugar syrup made in the process of refining sugar cane or sugar beet juice into sugar ,or by treatment of a sugar solution with acid. It is used in a variety of baking recipes and desserts. It has an appearance similar to honey and is often used as a substitute where honey is unavailable or prohibitively expensive. Many vegans also use it as a honey substitute.


     
6. Artificial Sweeteners :-
There are many types on the market and some appear to be safer than others. They have been in use in America and Europe for over 120 years. They have zero glycemic index and are harmless to teeth.
       The most common are:
               Aspartame, Sucralose, Saccharin, Neotame ,                  AcesulfameK, Cyclamate.



Safety of Artificial Sweeteners
u Sweeteners approved by the government must be established as not harmful to consume.
u Approved sweeteners include acesulfame K (potassium), aspartame, saccharin, sucralose, stevia , neotame , luo han guo extract
u Benefits outweigh risks
u Weight management
u Blood glucose control
u Cavity prevention


SUGAR FREE
      sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.  Some sugar substitutes are produced by nature, and others produced synthetically.
      USES :-
                   1 . To assist in weight loss
                   2.  Dental care
                   3.  Diabetes mellitus
                   4.  Reactive hypoglycemia
                   5.  Cost and shelf life


SUGAR SUBSTITUTE 
      Sucrose  :- Table sugar
 used in such products as candies, baked goods, frozen        desserts, beverages, dessert mixes .
Found  in : Naturally in fruit, added to baked goods, jams, marinades, salad dressings .
       Acesulfame potassium  :   also known as acesulfame K or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) often marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One
Found in: Soft drinks, gelatins, chewing gum, frozen desserts



      Agave nectar   :-Agave nectar (more accurately called agave syrup) is a sweetener commercially produced from several species of agave syrup is sweeter than honey and tends to be less viscous.
 Found in: Cereals, yogurts, tea


      Aspartame  :-  Is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as                       a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
                                    Equal, NutraSweet
                           Found in: Drinks, gum, yogurt, cough drops  



Stevia leaf extract  :-Truvia, Pure Via
                                     
      Found in :- Diet drinks, yogurts, individual   packets 


      Saccharin  :- is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste especially at high concentrations. It is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, cookies, and medicines.
      Sweet’N Low
                      
       Found in:- Drinks, canned goods, candy 


      Sucralose  :-  Splenda can be used as a replacement for table sugar in cooking and baking,
Found in:-Fruit drinks, canned fruit, syrups.


    Sugar alcohols  :- also called polyhydric alcohols are organic compounds , derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols. They are white, water-soluble solids that can occur naturally or be produced industrially from sugars. They are used widely in the food industry as thickeners and sweeteners.  
      Sorbitol, xylitol , mannitol
 
Found in:-Sugar-free candies, gum, desserts.


Uses in Cooking and Baking
In baked goods, replace half the sugar in the recipe with artificial sweetener
In cold or unbaked dishes, replace all the sugar in the recipe with artificial sweetener
Best to use recipes formulated with artificial sweeteners in mind
Try combining sweeteners for enhanced sweetness and less after-taste


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
Advantages
      Sweetness without Using  Sugar.

      Controlling Calorie
      Utilized in Weight Loss Diets
      Managing Diabetics


DISADVANTAGES
      Link to Diseases
      Ingestion of Chemicals
      Might Heighten Sugar Cravings
      lacks nutritional value




Approval Process
u “Acceptable Daily Limit” established for every approved sweetener
u Much more than anyone would typically consume
u Government looks at health safety for sweeteners
u 100x lower than amount that causes health problems


CONCLUSION

Although many people are starting to use artificial sweeteners  and sugar substitutes, we believe that it is best to stick with good old table sugar. Despite the fact that white table sugar, or sucrose, has been processed and bleached, it is very close to natural compared to other sweeteners. Humans have been consuming white sugar for a very long time and it seems to have few problems.

One of the only reasons that someone should consume sweeteners other than white sugar is for medical purposes.
 EXAMPLE :- Diabetics must monitor their glycemic index, and     often keep it down by using sugar substitutes.